Investigating the effects of Vitamin E Delta-Tocotrienol on malignant melanoma cells i.e. Skin Cancer
DELTA-TOCOTRIENOLS CAN SUPPORT
INHIBITION OF CELL PROLIFERATION
ATTENUATION OF TUMOR INVASION AND METASTASIS
INCREASE OF miR-451 EXPRESSIONS
REPRESSED EXPRESSION OF MMP-9 &Upa PROTEINS
Tocotrienols have been observed to demonstrate several health-promoting effects in different diseases like cardiovascular, cancers, etc. based on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cholesterol-lowering, and neuroprotective properties. There is evidence that proves that Tocotrienols are several times more potent than Tocopherols when it comes to suppressing and preventing cancers!
Introduction to Melanoma or Skin Cancer and Delta-Tocotrienol
Malignant melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer and it’s faster-growing cancer in terms of incidence rate in humans, with a 2.6% increase in the number of melanoma cancers over the last decade. Although, melanomas are curable in the early stages the prognosis of melanomas in the late stages is still very poor. The first treatment options include alkylating agents like dacarbazine and temozolomide and cytokines like interleukin-2 and interferon-α. However, there are serious side effects and melanoma develops resistance easily against these drugs. Hence, a potent substitute was needed to suppress this cancer.
In several studies and research, Tocotrienols have been observed to possess certain anticancer benefits and suppress cancers. In this study too, the effects of Delta-Tocotrienol, an isomer of Vitamin E on the tumor and cell growth of melanoma were investigated. The involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the role of Delta-Tocotrienol in suppressing melanoma. The study and the experiments were carried out on human melanoma cells and nude mice xenografts.
How does the Delta-Tocotrienol fight Skin cancer?
It was observed in the study that, Delta-Tocotrienol significantly induces apoptosis on the BLM, and A275, human melanoma cell lines. The mechanism involved the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and surprisingly, the normal human skin cells weren’t affected by Delta-Tocotrienol! The results showed that Delta-Tocotrienol suppressed the tumor growth through activation of the ATF4, CHOP, IRE1α, PERK, p-eIF2α, and caspase-4 ER stress-related branches.
In vivo studies, experiments were performed in nude mice bearing A375 xenografts. It was observed that Delta-Tocotrienol reduced the tumor volume and also, the tumor mass! Moreover, even tumor progression was incredibly delayed and suppressed by Delta-Tocotrienols.
To conclude the study, the data suggested that Delta-Tocotrienols exerted proapoptotic activity on melanoma skin cancer cells through the activation of the ER-related pathways which can increase the possibility of Delta-Tocotrienol emerging as an effective option for a novel chemopreventive agent for melanoma!
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