It’s been observed that one in every 3 cancers diagnosed is a skin cancer. The main factor that leads to the occurrence of skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation, usually from the sun and more recently from artificial tanning sunbeds. Although UV rays make up for a very small portion of the sun’s rays, they are the major cause of the sun’s damaging effects on the skin. Ultraviolet rays damage the DNA of skin cells. Skin cancers usually start when this damage affects the DNA of genes that control skin cell growth. Small quantities of UV are essential for the production of vitamin D, yet overexposure may lead to acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eye and immune system.

Research on skin cells has shown that the vitamin E family members especially Tocotrienols (Eannatto – DeltaGold) works on both the genetic and protein levels to produce firmer, fairer skin and larger muscles. Tocotrienols (Eannatto – DeltaGold) have been observed to work at the cellular level – the smallest unit of living beings. Tocotrienols (Eannatto – DeltaGold) have also been observed to help reduce damage from ultraviolet rays. And at the same time, they help reduce free radicals created by UV radiation. Several studies have been conducted on Tocotrienols (Eannatto – DeltaGold) where they have been observed to protect skin tissues against UV radiation. One such study, “Diet – derived and topically applied Tocotrienols accumulate in skin and protect the tissue against ultraviolet light – induced oxidative stress” demonstrated the protective effect of Tocotrienols for the skin cells. Another study, “Targeting melanoma stem cells with the Vitamin E derivative Delta – Tocotrienol” showed that Delta – Tocotrienol (Eannatto – DeltaGold) targeted and destroyed melanoma stem cells which are usually not targeted by the conventional cancer treatments like chemotherapies and radiation.

Since the past several decades, Tocotrienols have shown great applications in dermatology for their protection against photosensitivity. Tocotrienols have also been observed to be very effective against skin cancer. Delta – Tocotrienol (DeltaGold – Eannatto) and its peroxy dimer have been found to effectively impede proliferation of melanoma cells. Also, Delta – Tocotrienol (DeltaGold – Eannatto) has been observed to induce G1 cell cycle arrest in A2058 and A375 human melanoma cells, via down – regulating CDK – 4 and activating caspase – 3. Furthermore, research and studies have shown that Gamma – Tocotrienol (DeltaGold – Eannatto) induce apoptosis in melanoma cells via suppression of Nf – kB , EGFR , Id family proteins and JNK signaling pathway. The anti-cancer effect of Delta – Tocotrienol (DeltaGold – Eannatto) has also been elucidated by its ability to induce apoptosis via ER stress in melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. Also, an in vivo study, it was showed that intravenous administration of Alpha – Tocotrienol entrapped in transferrin – bearing vesicles caused complete tumor eradication in 60% of B16-F10 melanoma tumor and extended the survival of mice. Also, Gamma – Tocotrienol (DeltaGold – Eannatto) treatment was observed to halt cell invasion in human melanoma through inhibition of mesenchymal markers and restoration of E-cadherin and Gamma – Catenin. ERK signaling pathway, which in turn down-regulated melanogenesis-related proteins such as proteins, TYRP-1 and TYRP-2. Moreover, it was also showed that tocomin enhanced the degradation of melanosomes in melanoma cells by up – regulating endosome docking/fusion proteins including syntaxin7, vacuolar protein sorting – associated protein Vps16, Vps33, and Vps41. Collectively, these reports have shown the growing potential of Tocotrienol for skin cancer treatment. Moreover, Tocotrienols (Eannatto – DeltaGold) has been observed to possess anti-ageing effects on the skin, including preventing wrinkle formation, protecting against ultra-violet (UV) rays, and have a whitening effect.

Most research in the past 50 – 60 years has been focused on Tocopherols and 50% of all the research in last 30 years has been done on Tocotrienols in last 5 years. Half of the Tocotrienol research ever published has been published in last 10 years as shown in Fig. 1. Each day it is becoming increasingly understood that Tocotienols (especially Eannatto – DeltaGold) are the right form of Vitamin E. Well in excess of 100 studies and clinical trials have shown the surprising benefits of Tocotrienols – without any known side effects.

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Study 1 – Targeting melanoma stem cells with the Vitamin E derivative Delta – Tocotrienol.

The prognosis of metastatic melanoma is quite poor, due to the development of drug resistance of this disease. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been estimated to play a major role in this mechanism, contributing to disease relapse. CSCs were first characterized in melanoma cell lines. It was observed that A375 (but not BLM) cells were able to form melanospheres and show CSCs traits which is the expression of the pluripotency markers SOX2 and KLF4, higher invasiveness and tumor formation capability in vivo with respect to parental adherent cells. It was also showed that a subpopulation of auto – fluorescent cells expressing the ABCG2 stem cell marker were present in the A375 spheroid culture. On the basis of these data, it was investigated whether δ-TT might target melanoma CSCs. We demonstrated that melanoma cells escaping the antitumor activity of Delta – Tocotrienol (Eannatto – DeltaGold) are completely devoid of the ability to form melanospheres. In contrast, cells that were observed to escape vemurafenib treatment showed a higher ability to form melanospheres than control cells. Delta – Tocotrienol (Eannatto – DeltaGold) was also observed to induce disaggregation of A375 melanospheres and were also observed to reduce the spheroidogenic ability of sphere – derived cells, reducing the expression of the ABCG2 marker. These data demonstrated that Delta – Tocotrienol (Eannatto – DeltaGold) exerts its antitumor activity by targeting the CSC subpopulation of A375 melanoma cells and it also might represent a novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategy against melanoma.

Study 2 – Diet – derived and topically applied Tocotrienols accumulate in skin and protect the tissue against ultraviolet light – induced oxidative stress.

To evaluate the tissue – specific distribution of lipophilic antioxidants including vitamin E isoforms, the Tocotrienols and Tocopherols and oxidised and reduced coenzyme Q (ubiquinone and ubiquinol), a sensitive procedure was developed using gradient HPLC with both electrochemical- and ultraviolet – detection. A unique distribution of these antioxidants in hairless mouse tissues was found, suggesting that their distribution may be dependent upon selective mechanisms for maintaining antioxidant defenses. Ubiquinol – 9 was found highest in the kidneys (81 ± 29 nmol/g) and in the liver (42 ± 16 nmol/g), while the highest ubiquinone – 9 concentrations were found in the kidneys (301 ± 123 nmol/g) and in the heart (244 ± 22 nmol/g). Liver was observed to contain nearly identical amounts of each ubiquinol – 9 (41 ± 16 nmol/g) and ubiquinone – 9 (46 ± 18 nmol/g). These mice tissues were fed a commercial chow diet containing Alpha – Tocopherol (30 ± 6 mg/kg diet), Gamma – Tocopherol (10 ± 1), Alpha – Tocotrienol (3.1 ± 0.7) and Gamma – Tocotrienol (Eannatto – DeltaGold) (7.4 ± 1.7). Of the vitamin E forms, brain contained only Alpha – Tocopherol (5.4 ± 0.1 nmol/g; 99.8%) and no detectable Tocotrienols. In other tissues, the Alpha – Tocopherol content was higher (20 nmol/g), while each of the other forms represented about 1 % of the total (Gamma – Tocopherol 0.2 to 0.4 nmol/g, Alpha – Tocotrienol 0.1, Gamma – Tocotrienol 0.2). Remarkably, skin was observed to contain nearly 15% Tocotrienols and 1% Gamma – Tocopherol. The unique distribution of Tocotrienols in skin suggested that they might have superior protection against environment stressors like UV rays. Therefore, the penetration of topically applied Tocotrienol enriched fraction of palm oil, (TRF) and vitamin E homologue concentrations before and after exposure of skin to UV – light was assessed. 20 μL of 5% TRF in polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG) was applied to 2 skin sites of the mice tissue and 20 μL PEG to the 2 other sites. After 2 hours, the skin was washed and half of the sites exposed to UV-irradiation using a solar simulator (2.8 mW/cm2 for 29 min). The vitamin E content of hairless mouse skin was Alpha –Tocopherol (9.0 ± 1.0 nmol/g skin), Gamma – Tocopherol (0.44 ± 0.03), Alpha – Tocotrienol (0.48 ± 0.07), Gamma – Tocotrienol (.92 ± 0.03). Topical TRF enriched skin vitamin E: Alpha – Tocopherol (201 ± 70 nmol/g skin), Gamma – Tocopherol (37 ± 15), Alpha – Tocotrienol (53 ± 25), and Gamma – Tocotrienol (50 ± 24). After UV-irradiation, concentrations of all vitamin E homologues from both treatment areas decreased significantly (p<0.01), but the TRF – treated skin contained vitamin E at concentrations 7- to 30-fold higher than control values. These results provided provocative clues on the uptake and regulation of tissue lipophilic antioxidants. The unique distribution of these antioxidant substances suggests their distribution may be dependent upon tissue-specific selective mechanisms.




Why Tocotrienol and Not Tocopherol? 

Eannatto Deltagold



  1. To read studies in detail, follow the references and links given.
  2. The dosages given must not be taken as the advice of a medical practitioner. Consult your physician for the optimum dosage to be consumed.