To investigate the anti-proliferative effects of Gamma-Tocotrienols (GTT) treatment on differential protein expression in HepG2 cells.
The following abstract is taken from a published study and is explained in simple terms to help you understand better. For deeper and technical insights regarding the action of Tocotrienols on human liver cancer cells, kindly refer to the reference link provided at the bottom of this abstract.



Introduction to Liver Cancer and Delta-Tocotrienol
The liver is the largest internal organ in the body and is responsible for various functions in the body. The cases of liver cancer have been growing rapidly since 1980 as the cases have been tripled since that year. Also, the death rate has been doubled from 1980 to 2017!
Since, the incidents of and the fatalities due to liver cancer are increasing rapidly, the need for a potent anticancer agent that can suppress cancer has risen. Several studies have been conducted on Tocotrienols, especially on Delta and Gamma isoforms to investigate their anticancer effects on Liver Cancer. In this study, the antiproliferative effects of Gamma-Tocotrienol on treatment on protein expression in HepG2 cells.
How does Gamma-Tocotrienol fight Leukaemia or Blood Cancer?
The study demonstrated that the Gamma-Tocotrienols treatment on HepG2 cells showed five differentially expressed proteins when compared to their respective untreated cells. Originally, for the untreated cells, two proteins were up-regulated, and three proteins were downregulated. One of the proteins which were upregulated was peroxiredoxin-4 (Prx4). Through GTT treatment, the Prx4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells was decreased. Hence, it was concluded that GTT might directly decrease the expression of peroxiredoxin-4, thereby suppressing the proliferation of liver cancer cells. Also, it has been observed that GTT also possesses lipid=lowering power in HCC which may also be the reason for its anticancer activities.
Suggested Usage:
Eannatto DeltaGold Tocotrienol contains 90% Delta-Tocotrienol and 10% Gamma-Tocotrienol. One bottle of Eannatto Tocotrienols contains 125g, 60 gels. In studies, 400-900g of dosage of Tocotrienols, have been suggested by researchers for patients suffering from cancer. Eannatto Tocotrienol has been derived from the Annatto plant, found in the Amazon which is 100% Tocopherol free. Also, Annatto contains 2x more Tocotrienols than Palm oil and 3x more Tocotrienols than rice bran oil.
Reference for the Study in detail:
3. Potential Role of Tocotrienols on Non-Communicable Diseases: A Review of Current Evidence.
4. Annatto (Bixa Orellana) δ-TCT Supplementation Protection against Embryonic Malformations through Alterations in PI3K/Akt-Cyclin D1 Pathway.
5.Delta- and gamma-tocotrienol isomers are potent in inhibiting inflammation and endothelial activation in stimulated human endothelial cells.
6. Norcantharidin combined with ABT-737 for hepatocellular carcinoma: Therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms.
7. B.B. Aggarwal, C. Sundaram, S. Prasad, R. Kannappan, Tocotrienols, the vitamin E of the 21st century: it’s potential against cancer and other chronic diseases, Biochem Pharmacol. 80 (2010) 1613-1631
8. P. Rajendran, F. Li, K.A. Manu, M.K. Shanmugam, S.Y. Loo, A.P. Kumar, G. Sethi, γ-Tocotrienol is a novel inhibitor of the constitutive and inducible STAT3 signaling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma: potential role as an antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and chemosensitizing agent, Br J Pharmacol. 163 (2011) 283-298.
9. N. Zaiden, W.N. Yap, S. Ong, C.H. Xu, V.H. Teo, C.P. Chang, X.W. Zhang, K. Nesaretnam, S. Shiba, Y.L. Yap, Gamma delta tocotrienols reduce hepatic triglyceride synthesis and VLDL secretion, J Atheroscler Thromb. 17 (2010) 10191032.
10. Y. Hiura, H. Tachibana, R. Arakawa, N. Aoyama, M. Okabe, M. Sakai, K. Yamada. Specific accumulation of gamma- and delta-tocotrienols in tumor and their antitumor effect in vivo, J Nutr Biochem. 20 (2009) 607-613
11. M. Sakai, M. Okabe, H. Tachibana, K. Yamada, Apoptosis induction by gamma-tocotrienol in human hepatoma Hep3B cells, J Nutr Biochem. 17 (2006) 672-676.